I was having problems when trying to update a machine with Windows 8.
Despite of having the settings to download windows updates automatically, none was downloaded.
When trying manually to check for updates I got the error 80070422 (Windows Update cannot check for updates).
So I’ve googled and tried to apply all the solutions offered:
Go to Control Panel, Administrative Tools, Services and Check for disabled services under the service tab. (Background Intelligent Transfer, Windows Update, etc.)
BUT, after a lot of frustration, the real culprit was the WINDOWS MODULES INSTALLER. After enabling this service, Windows Update begun to work as it should.